ABSTRACT. Criminal punishment should be understood in retributive terms as a response to wrongdoing that seeks to communicate deserved censure and to induce repentant understanding (Duff). Punishment invokes a primordial understanding of state power that remains highly credible (Caplow and Simon). Large surplus labour populations are threatening to market economies, and economic elites within these nations use imprisonment to manage the underclass when unemployment increases (Rusche and Kirchheimer).



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