ABSTRACT. The main topic of this study is the art of governmentality and self-development in the shadow education sector in China. The study considers three main points: the social and economic background of shadow education development, the governmentality of shadow education based on policy and practice, and the construction of governmentality subjectivities for shadow education. This paper therefore begins by focusing on the social and economic background of shadow education as a crucial way to analyze the education market from the Foucauldian perspective, then concentrates on how a governmentality was constructed in response to a complex education market and education quality challenges, as well as how to govern and regulate the shadow education market, and the art of governmentality, by declaring a series of related central laws and policies. Finally, it presents the complex relationship between governmentality and the self-development of shadow education through three mainstream power sources – government, shadow education institutes and individuals. With shadow education helping to foster student learning, the huge shadow education market could be an appropriate way for the government to boost the economy. However, the tension between the humanistic aims of education and the liberal undertones of the education training market poses a potential threat to the whole Chinese education system. Our initial findings point to the difficulties of achieving overarching control. Should government, shadow education institutes and individuals make the choice to promote shadow education development? Applying Foucauldian governmentality theory, this paper conceives of collective power as a nexus of perpetual planning and strategic action, and substantially focuses on the monitoring and development of shadow education by considering the inclusion of shadow education in the overall education development plan. pp. 30–35

Keywords: shadow education; governmentality; education policy; law


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