ABSTRACT. Firebaugh and Sandu argue that the post-1989 change in former Communist societies in East and Central Europe is viewed as a double transition involving both marketization and democratization: Romanians distinguish two reform dimensions as opposed to a single "pro-Westernization" dimension. B?dil? asserts that the change of the political regimes in the Central and Eastern European countries destroyed the ideological boundaries. Rose claims that, before the Iron Curtain fell, there were two ways to determine the direction Communist countries were moving: you could take official statements at face value or rely on dissidents and refugees.



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