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ABSTRACT. The focus of this paper lies on the “driving forces” of the size and development of the shadow economy in 31 European and 5 other non-European OECD countries from 2003 to 2014. Influential factors on the shadow economy are tax policies and state regulation, which, if rising, increase the shadow economy, though other economic factors like unemployment are important, too. The overall average size of the 31 European (five other non-European OECD countries) was 22.4% (12.2%) in 2003, decreased to 19.4% (9.6%) in 2008, increased to 19.9% (10.1%) in 2009 and finally decreased to 18.3% (8.6%) in 2014. pp. 7–29
JEL codes: D78; H2; H11; H26; K42; O5; O17

Keywords: shadow economy; tax pressure; state regulation; unemployment; self-employment

How to cite: Schneider, Friedrich (2015), “Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 Other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2014: Different Developments?,” Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics 3(4): 7–29.

Received 22 February 2015 • Received in revised form 22 May 2015
Accepted 22 May 2015 • Available online 1 October 2015

FRIEDRICH SCHNEIDER
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Department of Economics,
Johannes Kepler University of Linz

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