ABSTRACT. OECD maintains that state aid should be reduced as it can distort competition in the internal market. Blaich et al. affirm that networks strive to minimize costs, maximize utility and coordinate activities leading to that end. Grimm and Ried consider a region to be defined by a set of countries characterized by a high degree of homogeneity and exposed to similar shocks: fiscal policies within a specific region can be considered as being coordinated, as each region has to optimize a similar problem. Gurr et al. assert that within-crop habitat manipulation strategies such as cover crops and green mulches can act on pests directly, providing “bottom-up” control.



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