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ABSTRACT. Different studies described the important role of wellbeing, self-care and self-efficacy (i.e. health determinants) to achieve best health outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, literature has paid little attention to highlight the possible gender differences related to the T2DM perception of those health determinants. For these reason, the aim of this study was to describe T2DM patients’ gender differences related to their wellbeing, self-care and self-efficacy. This study was performed by a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional research, conducted in an outpatient setting in Northern Italy. Data was collected from March 2014 and July 2016 in a cohort of 115 T2DM outpatients, aged from 60 to 91 years (mean = 69.78 ± 7.11). Our results showed that men perceived more general wellbeing than women, and more diabetes specific self-efficacy. No differences seemed to be related to self-care. Indeed, the stratification by gender of the bivariate analysis allowed to identify many peculiarities related to wellbeing domains and self-efficacy. This study had a pioneering nuance in Italian assessment of T2DM health determinants, and it could have a number of future implications. Further empirical researches should provide more information to deeply understand the T2DM patients’ peculiarities, which could help nurses to improve a personalized care delivery.

Keywords: diabetes; gender differences; nursing; self-care; self-efficacy; well-being

How to cite: Caruso, Rosario, Cristina Arrigoni, Arianna Magon, Francesco Pittella, Federica Dellafiore, Anna Maria Grugnetti, Davide Ausili, and Francesco Auxilia (2017). “Health Determinants in Italian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Patients: A Critical Gender Differences Analysis,” Journal of Research in Gender Studies 7(2): 93–108.

Received 25 August 2017 • Received in revised form 6 September 2017
Accepted 6 September 2017 • Available online 27 September 2017

doi:10.22381/JRGS7220176

ROSARIO CARUSO
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Health Professions Research and Development Unit,
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato
(corresponding author)
CRISTINA ARRIGONI
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Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine,
Section of Hygiene,
University of Pavia
ARIANNA MAGON
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Health Professions Research and Development Unit,
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato
FRANCESCO PITTELLA
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Health Professions Research and Development Unit,
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato
FEDERICA DELLAFIORE
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Health Professions Research and Development Unit
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato
ANNA MARIA GRUGNETTI
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Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Pavia
DAVIDE AUSILI
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Department of Medicine and Surgery,
University of Milano-Bicocca
FRANCESCO AUXILIA
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Department of Biomedical Science for Health,
University of Milan

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