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ABSTRACT. This article reviews and advances existing literature concerning whether the workers in the on-demand economy are employees, independent contractors, or a hybrid category. Building my argument by drawing on data collected from Bureau of Labor Statistics, Edelman Intelligence, Elance-oDesk, Ernst & Young, Freelancers Union, HumanResources, NPR/Marist, PersolKelly, Pew Research Center, and Upwork, I performed analyses and made estimates regarding the likely impact of some workers preferring flexible contract-based roles over traditional permanent full-time roles (%), issues freelancers are concerned about (%), how benefits differ for part-time, full-time, and contract workers (%), and reasons for using contingent workers (%).

Keywords: on-demand economy; employee; independent contractor; hybrid category

How to cite: Popescu Ljungholm, Doina (2019). “Are the Workers in the On-Demand Economy Employees, Independent Contractors, or a Hybrid Category?,” Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 18: 119–125. doi:10.22381/LPI1820197

Received 12 December 2018 • Received in revised form 12 March 2019
Accepted 17 March 2019 • Available online 14 April 2019

DOINA POPESCU LJUNGHOLM
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University of Pitești, Romania

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