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ABSTRACT. Startup organizations are faced with the need to mature along the dimensions of intentionality, resources, boundary and exchange (Katz & Gartner, 1988). Lacking any one of these four dimensions places restraints on the Human Resource management options available to these firms. Specifically, the authors offer a predictive theory of employment mode (hire, develop, contract, or strategic alliance) based on a firm’s levels of intentionality, resources, boundary and exchange. Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) is used to test hypotheses based on the theory. Preliminary evidence indicates that levels of intentionality, resources, boundary and exchange may affect employment mode decisions in startup organizations that are in the Construction, Manufacturing, and Transportation industries. pp. 1-17

Phil C. Bryant
Columbus State University
David G. Allen
University of Memphis

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