ABSTRACT. This article reviews and advances existing literature concerning urban sensing and spatial recognition technologies, cognitive data visualization and image processing tools, and predictive control and virtual simulation algorithms. In this research, previous findings were cumulated showing that digital twin technologies, virtual simulation tools, and urban logistics networks are instrumental in Internet of Things-based smart city environments, and I contribute to the literature by indicating that machine learning-based algorithm modeling tools, Internet of Things digital twins, and remote sensing data assist virtual and augmented reality-powered immersive spaces and cognitive smart cities. Throughout May 2022, a quantitative literature review of the Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest databases was performed, with search terms including “urban geopolitics” + “Internet of Things-based digital twins,” “immersive 3D and spatial computing technologies,” and “virtual data modeling tools.” As research published between 2021 and 2022 was inspected, only 167 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. By taking out controversial or ambiguous findings (insufficient/irrelevant data), outcomes unsubstantiated by replication, too general material, or studies with nearly identical titles, I selected 24 mainly empirical sources. Data visualization tools: Dimensions (bibliometric mapping) and VOSviewer (layout algorithms). Reporting quality assessment tool: PRISMA. Methodological quality assessment tools include: AXIS, MMAT, ROBIS, and SRDR.

Keywords: Internet of Things-based digital twins; immersive 3D and spatial computing technologies; virtual data modeling tools; urban geopolitics

How to cite: Buckley, S. (2022). “Internet of Things-based Digital Twins, Immersive 3D and Spatial Computing Technologies, and Virtual Data Modeling Tools in Urban Geopolitics,” Geopolitics, History, and International Relations 14(2): 72–87. doi: 10.22381/GHIR14220225.

Received 26 June 2022 • Received in revised form 26 October 2022
Accepted 29 October 2022 • Available online 30 October 2022

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